The transport sector plays a key role in climate policy.

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Dear Reader,
 
The transport sector plays a key role in climate policy. All forms of transport together account for a quarter of greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. The sector also has one of the highest rates of energy consumption. Greener transport would be a major step in the right direction.
 
Most countries attach high priority to making transport more sustainable: the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) of over 60% of countries contain concrete transport measures-proof of ambition and awareness, and a step in the right direction. What’s important now is to make these actions visible and connect them to the ambitions of the transport-organisations. We are aiming to achieve critical mass, so that we can accelerate progress towards results.
 
With this publication we hope to boost that acceleration. Under the Paris Proces on Mobility and Climate the Netherlands has compiled low-carbon transport initiatives from around the world with a view to spotlighting them. A small task force travelled virtually around the world in 80 days, listing all kinds of climate actions, ideas and initiatives.
 
This compilation shows that transport is one of the most dynamic sectors, as well as a socially responsible sector that can still make important headway in reducing its energy use and CO2 emissions. My country is keen to continue playing a role in this area. The sector is already doing a lot. But it could do even more. Let’s tackle this challenge together.
 
Sharon Dijksma
Minister for the Environment
Sharon Dijksma
Sharon Dijksma
On 3 November 2015 Ms Dijksma was appointed Minister for the Environment in the Rutte-Asscher government.

From 17 June 2010 to 20 September 2012 Ms Dijksma was a member of the House of Representatives for the PvdA, with responsibility for general economic policy and spatial planning & infrastructure. From 17 December 2012 to 3 November 2015 she was Minister for Agriculture in the Rutte-Asscher government.

Sharon Dijksma was a member of the House of Representatives of the States General for the Labour Party (PvdA) from 1994 to 2007. Her portfolio included education, transport, public works & water management and development cooperation. On 22 February 2007 she was appointed State Secretary for Education, Culture & Science in the fourth Balkenende government.

 

 

Inspired by Jules Verne

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In the early 1870s, Jules Verne wrote Around the World in Eighty Days. In this book, Phileas Fogg makes a bet that he can travel around the world in eighty days. An unprecedented challenge, yet not impossible. Right on time Fogg completes his journey.

The story is an exploration rather than science fiction. At the end of the nineteenth century, new means of transport (steam trains, steamships) and modern infrastructure (railways and iron bridges) created unprecedented opportunities. Verne shows a new world in a story that capitalises on the opportunities of his time.

That story is our inspiration. We too can create a new world, if we capitalise on the opportunities of our time. The prevention of uncontrollable climate change calls for global agreements on climate adaptation measures and sustainable growth. It requires us to utilise opportunities that are there for the taking today. In the world of transport too.

Climate and transport

The world population is growing, cities are growing, and for increasingly more people the standard of living is rising. Consequently, the demand for food and goods, and the need for mobility are keeping pace. Sustainable economic growth must prevent us from overburdening our living environment and ensure that future generations will have a liveable world too.

Across the globe, transport accounts for nearly one-quarter of all CO2 emissions, and a substantial proportion of the emission of other harmful substances. Moreover, the transport world is one of the most rapidly growing sectors. This means that the environmental impact of transport continues to grow. The good news is that there are also sustainable and climate-friendly transport options. Many good examples already exist that are worth following.

With ambition and action towards climate-friendly transport

The Netherlands is the logistics heart of Europe, with numerous initiatives in the field of climate-friendly transport. With the Rotterdam Climate Initiative, the port of Rotterdam is working on halving its CO2 emission. Quayside electricity has led to a decline in the use of diesel units by the inland shipping sector, and watery cities are experimenting with climate-friendly freight distribution by water. Schiphol Airport is the first international airport to operate electric buses. The Betuwe railway line has replaced a great deal of truck kilometres to the hinterland, and the road transport sector itself is reducing emission levels, among other ways by using cleaner diesel and LNG trucks.

Last year, the Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment prepared the Fuel Vision together with a broad-based group of stakeholders. In this vision on the future of fuels in goods transport the Ministry sets out the framework for low and zero emissions in traffic and transport. Policy regarding fuel in transport entails operating on a global playing field. That is why this vision focuses on international collaboration and the formation of coalitions. It constitutes an important guideline for the pioneering role the Netherlands intends to assume during the COP 21 in Paris.

Furthermore, bicycling has reached an all-time high in the Netherlands. Rather than giving up their standard bicycle, Dutch citizens tend to switch to, for example, electric bicycles. The Netherlands has also responded well to the electric car. As long as forty years ago, the city of Amsterdam experimented with a form of electric urban transport (the so-called Witkar). The city now accommodates a growing number of electric vehicles – as do many other cities and towns throughout the country – and it offers parking spaces where such vehicles can be recharged.

The government and the business community are supporting this development with subsidies and advantageous schemes for transport costs. Consequently, the Netherlands is an interesting market for manufacturers of electric vehicles. For this reason, Tesla has substantially expanded its presence in the Netherlands. The American brand – along with several other providers – is currently working on a network of rapid-charge stations along motorways in the Netherlands and elsewhere in Europe.

Eighty days of climate action in transport

Dutch transport’s reputation and its climate-friendly initiatives have prompted the UN and France to request the Netherlands to give support
to the Lima Paris Action Agenda for Transport, in the run-up to the Paris climate summit. With a campaign, events and support to the Paris Process on Mobility and Climate as a result. A campaign aimed at collecting – in eighty days before the COP 21 – a wide array of good examples of improving sustainability and reducing emission levels in transport, across the globe. Examples that show that it can be done and that it works!

Fifteen initiatives by globally organised transport sectors constitute the basis for this campaign. With their collective initiatives, these industry organisations, trade unions, and other interest groups will manage to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions of their joint transport movements by half, between now and 2025.

For this to succeed, the initiatives require the firm support of governments, NGOs, the business community and the public. For this reason, this publication is holding an appeal. A call on governments and stakeholders to remove obstacles. To create favourable conditions, and to show the public that the transport sector means business on climate action.

We collected the most interesting examples from the wide range of actions within the various initiatives, and have published brief descriptions on the www.ppmc-cop21.org website. They will total some one hundred by the time the climate summit commences.

In the publication before you, we travel criss-cross around the world. At each location we will show you several examples of each mode of transport. The six modes of transport have been supplemented with the themes of fuels and infrastructure, as these too allow great gains to be made with a view to a climate-friendly transport sector!

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Dutch vision on fuels

Dutch vision on fuels

In the Netherlands this vision of a sustainable fuel mix has been compiled in the first half of 2014 following intensive collaboration between more than 100 organisations.

Around the world, a number of major transitions are taking place with regard to energy provision (sustainability and energy conservation) and the use of fuels. This vision brings together climate-related mobility objectives and social issues relating to sustainable energy, energy conservation, green growth, living conditions (air quality and noise pollution) and safety in a global context.

The driving factor in the Netherlands is the Energy Agreement signed under the auspices of the Social and Economic Council (SER) in September 2013, in which ambitious Tank-to-Wheel (TTW) objectives[1] were agreed in order to reduce the CO2 emissions of the mobility and transport sector. It is important that the activities conducted for this purpose also help to reduce Well-to-Wheel (WTW) carbon emissions, and closer examination must be conducted into the relationship with other measures unrelated to fuel or vehicles, such as behavioural change, logistic efficiency, and better use of infrastructure.

 

Achieving the Energy Agreement’s objectives whilst simultaneously stimulating green growth will be a major challenge that requires courage, decisive action, co-operation, consistent strategies, and the willingness to invest. To realise this goal, there must be approximately 3 million zero-emission vehicles in the Netherlands by 2030. In order to satisfy the objectives and simultaneously reap the benefits of green growth and improvements in living conditions, these developments must be initiated immediately. The shipping sector (both inland and ocean shipping)[2] have set themselves the objective of achieving a 50% reduction in CO2 by 2050 in comparison with 2020 levels. This objective, which was later repeated in “Groen en Krachtig Varen” (Eng: Powerful and Green Shipping), the environmental brochure of the KVNR[3], matches the Energy Agreement objectives for the energy sector. The aviation sector is establishing ambitious and far-reaching sustainability goals in accordance with stringent international certification criteria. A substantial proportion of the rail sector already runs on electric power.

The result of this process is an adaptive and targeted multi-track strategy that will make the Netherlands a European front-runner in sustainable mobility and a pioneer in a number of promising niches.

  • The Netherlands is committed to switching to electric propulsion in transport sectors in which electricity is a promising alternative. 
         Electric motors will be combined with sustainable biofuels and renewable gas[4] as a transitional option and a long-term solution for
         heavy transport. Both avenues will be supported by continual efforts to improve efficiency.
  • For the shipping sector, the Netherlands is committed to implementing efficiency measures in combination with a transition to LNG and
         use of sustainable biofuels[5] for short-sea and inland shipping.
  • In the aviation sector, improvements in efficiency are being made by means of innovative aircraft technology, operations and 
         infrastructure, as well as continued development and application of sustainable biokerosine sourcing, production and distribution.
  • For the rail sector, the Netherlands is dedicated to expanding the use of sustainable electricity, as well as replacing diesel trains with
         LNG- and bio-LNG-powered trains (depending on the technical and economic feasibility).
  • The periodic strategy updates that take place every three or four years create opportunities to introduce new technologies and
         additional instruments.

The transition to a sustainable energy mix requires:

  • Made-to-measure support: Support will be tailor-made to suit specific product-market combinations and the specific development
         phase that the product is in. After all, products that are market mature require different support to products in the R&D stage.
  • Co-operation between all relevant policy areas at all scale levels within an international context: Every policy type has a different scale
         level (regional, national, European, global) that varies according to the mode of transport in question. Measures for road transport are 
         predominantly applied at the national level, inland and short-sea shipping at the European level, and aviation and deep-sea shipping at
         the global level.
  • Swift investments to realise maximum benefits: Although 2030 and 2050 are a long way away, opportunities exist today to develop
         niche and early markets in order to optimally position the Netherlands for the future large-scale roll-out of technology for green vehicle
         transport and sustainable fuels. In a number of areas, the Netherlands can be a frontrunner.

Promising green growth projects[6] further build upon the Netherlands’ strong position and its specific circumstances, such as the high degree of urbanisation. Sustainable mobility links five of the current nine innovation agendas. Promising niche markets – for both existing market players and newcomers/start-ups – in the green-growth sector with the potential for market leadership include:

  • Electric transport: development and application of products and services regarding recharging infrastructure, smart grids, energy 
         storage, and special vehicles/components.
  • Hydrogen: pilots and market-introduction studies on fuel-cell cars and other vehicles (buses, refuse lorries etc.); development regarding
         the production and distribution of sustainable hydrogen fuel as a long-term solution. (The hydrogen economy is important for
         industries relating to hydrogen-fuel-cell technology, system integration, the production and distribution of hydrogen, and the supply
         industry.)
  • Renewable gas: front-runner in R&D and pilots relating to the distribution and production of renewable gas for light vehicles and
         LNG/bio-LNG for heavy vehicles and shipping and certain segments of the rail sector.
  • Biofuels: front-runner in the development and distribution of sustainable biofuels[7].

With an action plan made up in 2014 and a coalition of the willing, we will begin to make this vision a reality. To achieve this vision, the following points must be put on the agenda.

Strategy development and action plan:

  • Strive to be a front-runner in specific niche markets that offer opportunities for green growth and contribute to the pioneer projects.
  • Form coalitions and examine possible synergy between the sustainable fuel mix, smart grids, energy storage and power-to-gas.
  • Gear development policy towards businesses that will be willing and able to play a key role in the sustainable fuel and vehicle mix
         (the pioneers).
  • Encourage existing sectors – such as shipbuilding or fossil fuel / biofuel production and distribution – to focus on making fuels
         more sustainable.
  • Condense the vision and strategy into an action plan.

Source-based policy:

  • Collaborate at the EU level to establish CO2 requirements for vehicles (fleet averages of car manufacturers) that are based on the
         60% CO2 reduction objective for 2050.
  • Collaborate at the EU level to reduce greenhouse gas emissions within the fuel chain – preferably within the EU Fuel Quality
         Directive (FQD) – and reformulate the EU Renewable Energy Directive after 2020 (following the renewable energy in transport
         objective), ensuring that it encompasses all fuels and that direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions constitute the guiding factor.
         This will help to introduce renewable energy in all market segments of the fuel sector. It is also in line with the recommendations
         made by the Corbey commission.
  • Focus on realising the commercial availability in the Netherlands of  vehicles with zero CO2 exhaust emissions by 2035, in addition to
         examining how these efforts can be realised at the EU level.
  • Work towards the implementation of fuel-blending obligations in the shipping sector for sustainable biofuels or towards other
         renewable energy objectives, and put the standardisation of CO2 emissions and methane slip on the agenda.

R&D and innovation:

  • Develop and reinforce the market introduction of and market-development programmes for various forms of electric propulsion in
         passenger and freight vehicles, including loading and hydrogen-tank infrastructure and related services, as well as connection to the
         energy network.
  • Develop programmes for sustainable fuel production by means of cascading and biorefinery.
  • Work on the development of the bio-based economy. The bio-based  economy can contribute to the development of advanced biofuels
         with a low environmental impact.
  • Facilitate a testing ground for efficiency improvements for the deep-sea  shipping sector and for the bulk consumers in the short-sea
         and inland shipping sector.
  • Support the innovation, investment and sustainability ambitions of the aviation sector to realise efficiency improvements and
         sustainable biofuels by means of further development of the Bioport Holland Concept.

Financial incentives (fiscal or otherwise):

  • Work at both the national and EU level on a fairer CO2-dependent incentive relating to vehicles, vessels and aircraft as well as
         fuel/energy carriers, with further examination in the long term of the entire chain and not just the specific attributes of the vehicles
         themselves. To this end, make long-term agreements in order to provide financial security.
  • Create a public-private infrastructure fund for charging points for battery-powered electric cars, renewable gas and hydrogen fuel
         stations, and LNG bunker stations.
  • Incentivise the transition from existing diesel ships to LNG ships or more sustainable technology and applications.
  • Conclude a covenant regarding the financing of sustainable investments.

Supporting measures:

  • Support purchasing consortia with tendering experience.
  • Support regional initiatives, learn from these experiences, and roll the successful initiatives out at the national level.
  • Encourage collaboration and coalition-forming between businesses in order to reinforce their growth potential and to give the
         Netherlands an optimal platform to present itself as a leading player in the field of sustainable mobility.

 

 

[1] Maximum total emissions of 25 Mt CO2 in 2030 compared with 1990 (-17%) for all transport in Dutch territory. These objectives apply in accordance with the IPCC definition: they include only greenhouse gas emissions within Dutch territory, and the use of biofuels, electricity and hydrogen are classified as zero emissions for the transport sector. In other words, these are Tank-to-Wheel objectives. When they apply to the entire chain, we refer to them as Well-to-Wheel objectives.

[2] In the “Energy Efficiency and CO2 Reduction Agreement for Shipping”, signed by the Minister for Infrastructure and the Environment.

[3] The members of the Royal Association of Netherlands Shipowners.

[4] This term includes biogas, bio-LPG, bio-DME, bio-LNG, power-to-gas methane and power-to-gas Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG) if produced from sustainable sources and if the CO2 emitted during production is captured.

[5] Until 2030, biodiesel will be predominantly used, with a possible transition from LNG to bio-LNG by 2050.

[6] ‘Green growth’ refers to the transition to a sustainable economy and the promotion of economic growth that also entails the reduction of pollution, more efficient use of raw materials, and the preservation of natural resources (source: CBS (2013), Green Growth in the Netherlands 2012).

[7] In the EU, specific criteria have been defined relating to the use of sustainable fuels. At the very least, WTW greenhouse gas emissions, risk of indirect land-use changes, and risks to food supplies should be taken into account.

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Green transport is key

Green transport is key

As an organization working on the integration of sustainable transport in global policies on sustainable development and climate change 2015 is a good year for us in the Partnership on Sustainable, Low Carbon Transport (SLoCaT).  We see that much progress is being made in bringing the transport sector into the discussions on sustainable development and climate change.  Evidence for this can be found in the recently adopted Sustainable Development Goals; although there is not a transport specific SDG, the SDG framework includes at least five targets that are directly impacted by transport, and at least seven targets that are indirectly impacted by transport, as shown in the figure below.

 

 

Figure 1: Direct and in-direct Transport Targets linked to the post-2015 Global Goals for Sustainable Development

 

It is encouraging to see that transport is also well represented in the 130+ Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) that have been submitted to the UNFCCC in preparation of the Conference of Parties (COP) 21 in December 2015 in Paris, France.  Transport is included as a sector where action will be taken in 76% of the INDCs submitted and collectively the INDCs list over 200 mitigation measures to be taken. 

 

 
Figure 2: Classification of Transport Related Measures in INDCs
 

In both cases we see however a strong bias towards passenger transport and the role of freight transport in economic development, as well as its growing contribution to Transport related greenhouse gas emissions, is not sufficiently being acknowledged.   There is a general understanding that freight transport will increase rapidly, especially in emerging and developing economies where freight activity will increase two- or threefold between now and 2050. These increases in freight activity will be at all geographical scales: global, regional, national and local and effective solutions will be required at all of these levels.

In the development of green freight solutions we believe that it is important to take into account lessons learned from the passenger sector.   Technological measures to improve the environmental performance of freight transport in terms of emissions, need to be combined with measures to shift freight transport to the most environmentally sound mode, which often is rail or water-based, as well as measures to avoid, or reduce the need for movement of goods through smart logistics and land-use planning.  While Improve measures can enhance sustainability and reduce emissions, in the medium and long term Avoid and Shift measures are more suited to structurally change the freight sector for the better.

For freight related Avoid-Shift-Improve interventions to be successful they require: (a) Enabling policies and regulatory frameworks; (b) Strong multi-stakeholder frameworks with adequate organizational capacity in national and local governments as well the freight and logistics sector; and (c) Financing models and access to financing that allows the roll-out of Shift and Improve options.

In the SLoCaT Partnership we are committed to support the work being undertaken by Green Freight specific networks and initiatives to raise the sustainability of the freight sector.  Our efforts will be focused on: (a) ensuring that freight transport is included in the indicators and monitoring framework for Transport related targets under the SDGs; and (b) to increase the visibility of freight transport in implementation plans for transport components of the INDCs.

About the Partnership on Sustainable, Low Carbon Transport:

The Partnership on Sustainable, Low Carbon Transport promotes the integration of sustainable, low transport in global policies on sustainable development and climate change. It carries out its activities with active involvement of its approximately 100 member organizations representing UN Organizations, multi-and bilateral development banks and organizations, transport sector bodies, NGOs and foundations, academe and the business sector that have an active interest in sustainable transport. www.slocat.net and www.ppmc-cop21.org.

Cornie Huizenga
Cornie Huizenga
Secretary General, Partnership on Sustainable, Low Carbon Transport
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Sustainable solutions in logistics

Sustainable solutions in logistics

DHL is a global leader when it comes to logistics. Our network spans more than 220 countries. With our 325,000 staff, we connect people and companies in a secure and reliable manner, thus also promoting international trade flows. Such a leading role worldwide in goods transport and storage creates obligations towards that same world. First of all by displaying a high degree of professionalism. Innovative and efficient logistics processes enable us to achieve a structural reduction of the burden on the environment. In addition, a specific focus on minimising environmental impact allows us to take the steps that matter and that are a catalyst for innovation in this field. The most sustainable and successful environmental measures often prove to be innovations that yield cost savings and optimise processes at the same time. Thus, sustainable solutions are profitable investments, rather than cost items. The DP DHL Group has set down its intentions with respect to the environment in a strategic objective: its worldwide goal is a 30% improvement in CO2 efficiency (per tonne of cargo) by 2020 vis-à-vis 2007, the benchmark.

 Below we have listed a few concrete examples of how these objectives are being pursued in the Netherlands, in this case involving parcel transport. It starts with the optimum loading of trucks, and planning routes in such a way as to avoid unnecessary kilometres. In addition, we are currently field-testing an app on the hand-held scanner which each courier carries, aimed at providing immediate feedback on his or her driving behaviour. Serious gaming technology introduces a competitive element that challenges couriers to aim for a top score in efficiency. Each new truck is always a model that meets the highest European standards in operation at that time. Electric vehicles have also made their appearance. For example, we have 60 e-Carts running in the Netherlands, electric delivery vans from DP DHL’s own factory in Aachen. In urban areas, bicycles are replacing delivery vans. Not only is this conducive in reducing CO2 emissions, bicycles have considerably better manoeuvrability and thus reduce traffic congestion. In the 20th century, DHL already pioneered deliveries by bicycle in the old city centre of Amsterdam. Since then, the number of delivery bicycles has grown explosively. This sets an example to the rest of the world: DHL bicycles now serve more than 50 cities in 11 countries across Europe. Bicycles now account for half of the express deliveries in many Dutch inner cities. The bicycles themselves also constitute an innovation with which DHL is involved, in terms of both development and construction. They now come in three types: a bicycle whose courier carries a large backpack; a parcycle, i.e., a cargo tricycle with a lockable container; and the cubicycle, a recumbent quadracycle fitted with a removable container with a capacity of one cubic metre. The BBC even designated the latter as one of the most remarkable vehicles of 2015!

In addition to its own initiatives, DHL also seeks collaboration with other parties. This autumn, for example, DHL signed the Green Deal Zero Emission Urban Logistics agreement (Green Deal ZES). This commits DHL to ensuring zero emission deliveries to city centres by 2025. This aim puts the signatories ahead of European legislation, which stipulates that only zero emission vehicles will be allowed in cities by 2050.

Ewout Blaauw
Ewout Blaauw
Director Corporate Communications DHL Netherlands

 

 

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On the way to a better tomorrow

On the way to a better tomorrow

We see it around us every day; sustainability is important. To us, to our customers, to our suppliers and to stakeholders. Sustainability connects us, because it is essential for a healthy future for all. It is therefore that one of our core company principles is: “In conducting our daily business, we assume economic, social and environmental responsibility”.

Corporate social responsibility has become apparent to Lidl and we, step by step, arrange our assortment and operations accordingly. It is therefore that we can surprise our customers, now and in the future, with high quality, more sustainable and affordable products.

Within our CSR policy ‘Climate’ is of big importance, as countering climate change is one of the greatest challenges of our time. Therefore we are careful with handling the world around us, which we do out of conviction and because it suits us. Within our logistical processes we focus on minimizing kilometers, optimizing transportation and building energy-saving and efficient distribution centers.

A good example is our pilot '100% electric transport' which we started in Amsterdam this spring. With a fully electric truck Lidl stores in Amsterdam are stocked from our distribution center in Zwaag. Our goal is to stock all Lidl stores in Amsterdam city center completely emission-free by 2025.

Another relevant example is the construction of our new distribution center in Waddinxveen. For this distribution center, of approximately 50.000 square meters, we received the BREAAM Outstanding design certificate, which is the highest certificate available in the field of sustainable construction. To this end, the new distribution center will be fully equipped with LED lights, there is no natural gas connection and we use the waste heat from refrigeration to heat the hall and office spaces. By installing more than 4,000 solar panels on the roof the distribution center can be self-sufficient on a sunny day! This investment is a logical step and a suitable consequence of our strategy to operate efficiently and cost effectively.

Of course we don’t do this alone but in good collaboration with external parties like suppliers, stakeholders and governmental bodies. That way, we together, are on the way to a better tomorrow!

Marlijn Simons-Somhorst

Manager Corporate Responsability & Relations

Marlijn Simons-Somhorst
Marlijn Simons-Somhorst
Manager Corporate Responsability & Relations

CSR-professional working in the field of retail. As Manager CSR of the Dutch Food Retail Association (CBL), Marlijn facilitated supermarkets in the Netherlands becoming more sustainable organizations. Since 2011, Marlijn works at supermarket Lidl NL, where she's responsible for sustainability and stakeholder management, in which she focuses on moving sustainability from niche to normal.

 

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Greening global freight

Greening global freight

Growth in international trade has been characterised by globalisation and the associated geographical fragmentation of international production processes. Supply chains have become longer and more complex, as logistics networks link more and more economic centers across continents. Freight patterns are rapidly evolving, affecting both the product composition and the geographical distribution of freight movements.

To understand future trends in the transport of goods, the International Transport Forum has developed a forecasting tool to assess freight movements by all modes until 2050. This tool underlines that the current complexification and lengthening of supply chains is likely to continue. While international freight in tonnes multiplies by 3.8 between 2010 and  2050, freight movements, measured in tonne-kilometres, could more than quadruple during the same period. This is driven by a 12% increase in the average hauling distance. Even considering strong technology and operational improvements, this is likely to translate into a trebling of CO2 emissions.

These numbers raise significant challenges for greening global freight. Public and private players along the supply chains need to coordinate to anticipate the coming changes. The levers of actions are known: vehicle standards, improved load factors, compatible infrastucture… But limiting the growth of CO2 emissions can only be efficient if the different stakeholders cooperate. This is especially true for intra-continental freight, where road transport dominates and which is increasing significantly in Africa and Asia.

Policies also need to be aligned across different sectors. Economic and trade liberalisation policies can have a significant impact on emissions. Therefore, they should also be assessed in the light of their climate impacts. As an illustration, the implementation of a multilateral trade liberalisation regime pushes CO2 emissions 15% above the baseline.

Finally, the model results also highlight the importance of national regulations in limiting CO2 emissions from global trade. While the domestic component of international freight (the freight activity within the borders of the origin or destination country) accounts for only 10% of the total volume, it generates around 30% of the total trade-related CO2 emissions. This is because goods are moved from ports to consumption centres predominantly in trucks, a CO2-intensive transport mode. The domestic share of trade-related freight varies with the geographic location of the main producers and consumers in a given country. In China, for instance, most of the economic activity is concentrated in coastal areas so the domestic link represents 9% of the total international trade related freight volumes in the country. In India, on the other hand, production and consumption centres are located inland, resulting in a domestic share of 14%.

The evolution of trade patterns will significantly impact these numbers and countries should be ready to accompany these changes. For instance, a movement of production centers from coastal to inland China could reshuffle the existing supply chains and drive domestic freight upwards in the country, increasing emissions if goods are moved by road. This can, however, also be an opportunity. The emergence of direct rail connections between Europe and China is, in part, a response to this trend.

José Viegas
José Viegas
Secretary-General of the International Transport Forum at the OECD

A Portuguese national, Mr. Viegas has had a distinguished career in academia and in the private sector before joining the ITF. A full Professor of Transport at the Technical University of Lisbon, he served as Director of MIT-Portugal’s Transport Systems focus area. As chairman of TIS.pt consultants, he advised governments and international institutions on key transport projects and policies.

At the helm of the ITF, Mr. Viegas has implemented new initiatives to increase value for member countries. He has created a work stream for rapid-delivery policy analysis for countries, strengthened ITF’s links with the private sector through the ITF Corporate Partnership Board and advanced the harmonisation of pan-European road freight transport by helping to secure approval for the Quality Charter developed by ITF’s European Road Transport Group.

Mr. Viegas holds a PhD in Civil Engineering from the Technical University in Lisbon and undertook postgraduate studies in regional Studies at the University of Karlsruhe, Germany.

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A more sustainable aviation industry

A more sustainable aviation industry

Although often seen as a major carbon culprit, aviation is currently responsible for no more than 2 to 3% of man-made greenhouse gas emissions. However, establishing a more sustainable aviation industry obviously has a part to play in helping the world limit global warming to 2 °C, since aviation is still expanding, and as electric and solar solutions are not yet suitable for commercial flights. This is why KLM is pursuing its own Climate Action Plan. Its aim: to reduce KLM’s carbon footprint through operational efficiency, bio fuels and offsetting. The plan was initiated in 2005 and has underpinned the airline’s performance in the Dow Jones Sustainability Index: it has held the number one position for the past 11 years in the aviation category. Various studies have a confirmed KLM’s best in class position in fuel efficiency and the use of sustainable bio fuels.

Pieter Elbers, President and CEO of KLM: ‘The aviation sector is the first to set down global climate target. In 2013, the international aviation organisation ICAO announced its decision to present a proposal next year for a worldwide mechanism to reduce CO2 emissions in international aviation. Such a mechanism, however, calls for agreements to be made during the Paris climate summit regarding a global market for CO2 emission rights. Once such agreements have been set down, KLM can take effective measures aimed at further improving aviation sustainability. KLM cannot do so on its own. Competition on an equal footing requires that all actors must play by the same rules. Subsequently, we are able to implement our Climate Action Plan. We are aiming for a 20% reduction in CO2 emissions per passenger by 2020, compared to 2011. We are also pursuing the development of sustainable bio fuels. Our initiatives aim to reduce our environmental footprint and contribute to KLM´s operating results. Only then will we generate permanent social value and help making Schiphol a sustainable mainport, able to compete all over the world.´

Pieter Elbers

President & CEO, KLM

Pieter Elbers
Pieter Elbers
President and chief executive officer of KLM

Member of:

  • International Advisory Board of International Institute of Air & Space Law (IIASL)
  • Critical Review Team Long Term Railway Agenda

Previous positions:

  • Chief Operating Officer
  • SVP Network & Alliances
  • VP Network Planning
  • Sales / General Manager KLM based in Milan, Athens and Tokio)
  • Manager aircraft loading
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The beginning of the journey

The beginning of the journey

1. What interpretation do you give the current developments in the field of green transport of goods and sustainable mobility?

Presently transportation sustainability is largely being measured by transportation system effectiveness and efficiency in conjunction with the environmental and climate impact of the system. Let us not underestimate the impact that greater efficiency can have on our environmental footprint. And don’t forget – efficiency gains often translate into financial gains.

Current developments in the field of green transport are indeed something to get excited about. With next-generation "Gen Set" locomotives that use up to 25% less fuel, biodiesel trucking which allows reductions in fuel of up to 21%, and Hybrid delivery vehicles which can increase fuel efficiency by 30% and cut overall emissions by the same amount – there is a lot being developed which can help us to immediately reduce the industry’s emissions, simply by adopting these new technologies.

2. What are the critical success factors?

As freight forwarders, our industry can contribute to keeping emissions under control directly when ion control of the goods, e.g. in the warehouse and indirectly by optimizing the supply chain. Our core business is not long haul transportation and therefore our control is somewhat limited but we do have some a degree of power to choose who we work with, choosing ‘greener’ partners over others. Understanding our responsibilities and acting according to good practice is now fully understood by the executive boards of our companies and the challenge is now to move this forward in the line management.

What will define our success in our attempts to reduce the sector’s emissions is first of all the increased awareness at all levels in our companies. We must all continue to raise awareness and help those around us in the supply chain to understand the impact on the environment.

The topic is increasingly making it to the agendas of international organisations, and it has indeed been on the tables of many governments for some years.  We are beginning to see action and we have anticipation for the results that will emerge from Paris.

We anticipate governments will focus on key policy instruments including taxation, financial incentives, regulation, and liberalisation in order to implement the Sustainable Development Goals. Many of these policies will have freight move in the most promising way for easing environmental and congestion problems, as well as freeing up budgets to invest in infrastructure. If the requirement to invest in logistics connectivity is not clearly perceived at inception, it is possible that inefficiencies prevail with trade suffering and the sustainable prosperity finally remaining a dream.

Measuring emissions however is no mean feat, and the current lack of standards makes it near impossible for accurate measurements to be taken. If we want to tax firms on their emissions we first need to establish a credible and trusted method to measure their emissions fairly. There is room for developments in technology to fill this gap and there is also a need for international organisations and governments to set up commonly accepted standards.

Greater willingness to adopt new technologies and more readiness to change are crucial success factors, and of course a little extra education on this topic will be helpful, we must understand that this is collaborative environment effort, as it was pointed out in Stockholm at the Forum on sustainability on 25.11.2015.

3. What is needed to achieve further sustainability in this field?

Since the majority of the transport sector’s emissions, some sources say 97%, come from direct burning of fossil fuels, what will ultimately achieve long-term sustainability is the migration of transportation from fossil-based energy to other alternatives such as renewable energy and the use of other renewable resources. The technologies already exist and from here on in, they can only improve. There are great hopes for all transport modes to improve their performance, in the last few years much was expected from rail transport. After an initial retrenchment and reduction of services we now see a more encouraging and courageous approach, which we can only commend. This is just the beginning of the journey for rail… and all other modes should improve their performances too.

Cost-savings alongside positive environmental benefits are no longer the unattainable combo it once appeared to be, investments in fuel-saving and emission reducing technologies and operational strategies can indeed achieve both goals today, in particular when these measures are adopted openly and without a protectionist approach.

Marco Sorgetti
Marco Sorgetti
Director General and CEO of FIATA

 

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A license to grow. Responsibly.

A license to grow. Responsibly.

A license to grow. Responsibly.

Shipping affects the lives of billions of people, with 90% of the world’s international trade travelling by sea. Maersk Line is an integral part of global supply chains, serving customers across the globe. On a daily basis, we carry cargo ranging from milk cartons for your fridge to state-of-the-art communications technology. We also carry our customers’ expectations, aspirations and promises for today and tomorrow.

Every day, our 32,000 employees in 374 offices around the world bring their expertise to help customers optimise their supply chains, maximize their distribution networks and most of all realize their business potential. We are devoted to supporting our customers and to continuously raising industry standards while enabling global trade and economic development in the most sustainable manner possible.

This is our license to operate in today’s volatile market, but also our investment in growth for tomorrow where resource competition, regulatory pressures and stakeholder scrutiny will further challenge industry fundamentals.

Doing More with Less

One of the ways to futureproof our business is to decouple growth from resource consumption. For several years now, Maersk Line has driven energy efficiency improvements across the company, pioneering initiatives ranging from network design and speed optimization to technical upgrades and the deployment of new and more efficient ships in our network, such as our Triple-E vessels.

Cost leadership is at the core of our business strategy as we seek to lead the way in “doing more with less”, and a focus on energy efficiency has proven its worth to the business. For many years past, we have been working systematically to improve our fuel efficiency, to reduce costs and mitigate our negative impacts on the environment.

To do so we are constantly seeking out innovative and commercially viable ways of reducing. Our new vessels – such as the Triple-E ships – set new standards on energy efficiency (35% more efficient than the industry average ); our existing fleet is being retrofitted with new technologies to improve energy efficiency and environmental performance; we are partnering with our charter fleet to improve energy efficiency - including vessel retrofits; and we are constantly optimizing network design and execution, to name but a few initiatives.

In 2013 alone, Maersk Line consumed 1.2 million tonnes of fuel less than the previous year, contributing over USD 760 million to our bottom line.

Decoupling Growth from Resource Consumption

Future-proofing also requires setting challenging targets. Therefore Maersk Line introduced a bold new reduction target in 2014: The reduction of CO2 emissions per container moved by 60% by 2020. The impact of this new target is a sustained decoupling of economic growth from CO2 emissions. In effect, a licence to grow our business – and our customers’ businesses – in years to come. Aggregating avoided emissions, Maersk Line will have saved the climate approximately 200 million tons of CO2 between 2007 and 2020 (assuming 2007 performance levels, 2020 volumes ).

‘We’ve come a long way, but our efforts won’t stop here,’ says COO Søren Toft. ‘We will continue to raise the bar on carbon efficiency to the benefit of the environment and our bottom line. We will have to leverage all of the tools at our disposal and the coming years will be critical to achieving this stretched target.’

 

 

Signe Bruun Jensen
Signe Bruun Jensen
Global Head of Sustainability for Maersk Line

 

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Multi-Donor Trust Fund on Climate Change in Transport

Multi-Donor Trust Fund on Climate Change in Transport

In Rio de Janeiro, more than a hundred energy-efficient Supervia trains help move 700,000 passengers a day, allowing the poor “Cariocas” living in the outskirts of the city to access their jobs, go to school and reach health centers.  Greenhouse emissions per passenger in those trains are only one-sixth of emissions generated by cars. This was made possible by a $811 million loan from the World Bank and a grant from ESMAP.

Supervia is one example of the World Bank’s transport operational focus: supporting sustainable solutions – universal, efficient, safe, and environmentally friendly – to connect people and businesses to jobs, social services, and markets. In fiscal year 2015 alone, we have invested $5.3 billion in sustainable transport in 34 countries, contributing to the Rio+ pledge of $175 billion in sustainable transport funding from multilateral development banks over 2012-2022.

As we head towards COP21, one may wonder: “How many Supervias will it take to reach a 2 degree scenario? And where will the financing come from?”

Transport accounts for about 60% of global oil consumption, 27% of all energy use, and 23% of world CO2 emissions. With demand for mobility increasing exponentially, especially in developing countries, transport is the fastest growing source of GHG emissions. Inevitably, actions to reduce GHG emissions and stabilize climate warming at 2 degree Celsius, as agreed by the international community in 2009, will fall short if they do not include aggressive measures in the transport sector.

Yet, transport has until now taken a back seat in the climate negotiations. Transport has not been at the heart of the negotiations, the share of transport in climate finance has been very small, and donor support to and interest in transport has been minimal.

But these trends may be changing: out of 133 INDCs submitted as of November 12, 2015, 77% explicitly identify the transport sector as a mitigation source, and more than 61% propose transport sector specific mitigation measures.  In addition, 10% of INDCs include a transport sector emission reduction target, and 14% of INDCs include assessments of country-level transport mitigation potential.

For example, in its INDC, China proposes to accelerate the development of smart transport and green freight transport and to give priority to the development of public transportation in cities, and India commits focus on low carbon infrastructure like energy efficient railways and inland water transport.

A number of voluntary coalitions, including Slocat and Michelin Challenge Bibendum are mobilizing all key transport stakeholders in support of major reforms and measures. The Paris Process on Mobility and Climate is organizing at COP21 a series of events to raise awareness about sustainable transport.

The international community needs to rally behind these efforts and help developing countries tackle this agenda.

International finance institutions need to raise the bar and back up efforts developing countries are making to address the climate change challenge. In October of this year, in Lima, the heads of the Multilateral Development Banks announced that they would increase their climate financing. The World Bank Group, specifically, pledged to increase its climate work by one third within 5 years, to 28% of its annual commitments, and the increase will include enhanced support for transport.

Reducing the climate footprint of transport is not a matter of infrastructure projects, alone. We need to improve our knowledge and our instruments to design transport policies that are more climate friendly. We need to assist our client countries in making the right choices, and implementing the right actions. To this end, the World Bank intends to leverage its transport-related technical assistance and knowledge programs through a Multi-Donor Trust Fund on Climate Change in Transport.  A major focus of this trust fund will be helping low and middle income countries implement their transport-related INDC or consider similar commitments for those that did not commit on transport in this pre-Paris phase.  We are keen to join hands with partners in this endeavor.

One thing is for sure: COP21 is a unique opportunity to shape transport investments towards a sustainable path. It is an opportunity we must seize.

Pierre Guislain
Pierre Guislain
Senior Director of Transport and ICT Global Practice

 

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intro

Urban Transport

intro

Urban Transport

Large cities accommodate more than half of the world’s population. For that reason, the expected continued growth of the world population will predominantly take place in those cities. This poses particular challenges to these megalopolises. It also means that they constitute the key to tackling climate change, preferably in conjunction with other major issues.

Large cities experience major movements of people and goods on a daily basis. Liveability and accessibility are often under pressure. Roads and streets are dangerous, the air is unhealthy. People and goods have increasing difficulty reaching their destinations. Calculated per capita, CO2 emissions are not extremely high, yet they soar on account of the large numbers of inhabitants. At many locations, the authorities have recognised that a city cannot function in a healthy and climate-friendly manner without a fine-mesh urban traffic and transport system.

Public transport

Public transport constitutes the backbone of an attractive and green system. Depending on the size, location and structure of a city, metro systems, electric trams, and, wherever possible, electric, hydrogen, LNG or cleaner diesel buses offer an attractive transport option, capable of dealing with a substantial proportion of commuter traffic. Increasingly more urban authorities choose to reduce or even ban cars from their city centres. In such cases, light rail and other systems provide the inhabitants with an attractive alternative, connecting several hubs within the conurbations in a sustainable manner.

The UITP, the international federation of public transport companies, set the ambitious goal of doubling its transport share by 2025. This target must be attained through a series of some 350 new climate initiatives among 110 public transport companies across the globe. In addition, 23 major cities signed the C40 “Clean Bus Declaration”. This declaration aims to be a catalyst for cleaner bus traffic. The target: increasing the number of clean buses in the bus fleet by one quarter by 2020.

ITS

Intelligent Transport Systems is an umbrella term for transport systems whose smart use of data enables them to ensure optimum connections between infrastructure, vehicles and their users. These systems can be utilised in increasingly smart ways: for example, for warehouse logistics, port logistics, but also for passenger transport.

The latter may involve People Movers, such as automatically operated mini buses, aerial cableways and monorails; systems that are primarily suitable for passenger transport at airports, in industrial estates, and business parks. Increasingly, more cities across the globe are opting for such systems supplementary to other modes of urban transport.

ITS plays an increasingly more important role in public transport applications as well. Examples include the fully-fledged bus commuting along its own bus lane between the city centre of the Dutch city of Eindhoven and the airport, and the unmanned subways of Copenhagen and Paris. The ITS for Climate initiative is one of the 14 initiatives aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This initiative revolves around promoting ITS by exchanging good practices.

Bicycling

In many countries, the use of bicycles fell sharply as prosperity grew. Now that cities make an effort to remain accessible, reduce air pollution and contribute to combating climate change, the bicycle is making a comeback.

The World Cycling Alliance (WCA) and the European Cyclists’ Federation (ECF) have committed to promoting bicycle transport, through their organisations, in as many cities as possible, and to doubling the number of bicycle movements in Europe by 2020.

This requires a great deal of effort. European cities such as Paris, Barcelona and Berlin have introduced popular rental bike systems, and even New York has built separate bicycle lanes for cyclists. Such investments in bicycle infrastructure have laid the foundation for achieving the intended share of bicycles particularly in urban movements. This does not just involve passenger transport, but also, for example, messenger services and bicycle taxis.

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BYD “7+4” multi-modal electric transport

BYD “7+4” multi-modal electric transport

The 7 stands for seven regular types of vehicles, from passenger cars and taxis to buses and refuse lorries. The 4 stands for the special uses of vehicles, in mines, warehouses, ports and airports. The Chinese BYD company aims to construct state-of-the-art electric vehicles across the entire scope of these eleven modes of transport and seeks to expand its current market share.

In 2015, BYD supplied as many as 780 electric buses to the Chinese Shenzhen Bus Group Company. This fleet of fully electric buses, equipped with sophisticated iron-phosphate batteries, is expected to reduce the CO2 emissions in the city of Shenzhen by an annual 74,100 tonnes: beneficial to the climate and to the health of the Chinese citizens living in the city. According to BYD, these buses generate a 75% savings in fuel costs, compared to diesel buses.

In the United States of America, BYD seized its opportunities in Washington and Denver, concluding agreements for 800 special Heavy Duty buses, and 36 electric mail and parcel post vehicles, respectively. Last year, together with Alexander Dennis Limited (ADL), BYD made a deal for the supply of 51 electric buses for the London bus fleet. Schiphol Airport in the Netherlands and the Dutch tourist island of Schiermonnikoog have meanwhile switched to electric BYD buses.

Isbrand Ho, Managing Director of BYD Europe, comments on BYD´s ambitions: ´It is about more than buses. It is about a transformation from E-mobility to uses across the whole of society: from electric tip-up trucks to road sweepers. Our electric taxis and forklift trucks are already in operation. With respect to the practical performances of our buses we have learned a great deal from our vehicles that operate on two London routes.’

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Qbuzz pilot with three fast-charging electric buses

Qbuzz pilot with three fast-charging electric buses

As soon as Qbuzz had won the bus transport tender for the Dutch city of Utrecht, they decided to experiment with electric buses in the regular schedule. A small, eager team from the company’s own ranks resolved to have electric buses on the street as soon as possible.

They opted for three Optare buses, a company highly experienced in plug-in systems. The young Dutch company Proov developed a wireless fast-charge system for these buses. This system allows the bus to take a quick ‘sip’ of energy at each stop. This hugely expands its range and thus the possible uses of the buses.

With these zero emission buses, the city of Utrecht is reaping considerable climate change benefits; the city is becoming cleaner and quieter. In order to implement these innovative technologies, however, the systems need to be fine-tuned and the drivers must attend additional training. The wireless charging must be as trouble-free as possible, yet the drivers will need to stop quite accurately in order for the bus to charge.

Additional training is also required to operate and monitor the systems during the run. In practice, it is the quiet engine that drivers most need to get used to. Because of the lack of customary acceleration sounds, they frequently tend to speed!

The project is expected to upscale from three to eleven buses in the city of Utrecht and the surrounding area. Further upscaling is dependent on various factors, including the recoverability of the development costs of the wireless fast-charge system and the development of the relative savings vis-à-vis the fuel costs of modern diesel buses.

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Modernising Belgrade public transport

Modernising Belgrade public transport

Not all climate-friendly transport solutions are new. For close to a century, electric trams and trolley buses have been transporting passengers in cities all over the world, including the Serbian capital, Belgrade. At many locations, these modes of transport have been ousted by motor traffic. In Belgrade, they were still operational, albeit with severely outdated rolling stock.

In 2009, the Belgrade city administration decided to launch a major updating operation, aimed at making public transport efficient, comfortable and sustainable. This modernisation is also intended to make public transport accessible for handicapped persons.

In order to attain these goals, stock and infrastructure had to be replaced. The authorities procured thirty new energy-efficient and wheelchair accessible trams. They subsequently procured nearly one hundred trolley buses, thus replacing the entire fleet.

The updated transport infrastructure and the new stock are equipped with modern systems that inform traffic control real-time on the traffic situation, the location, seat occupancy, and ticket sales on the various lines. This provides traffic control with the proper information for optimum efficiency in the use of stock and strictly adhering to the timetable.

With its modernisation scheme, the GSP Belgrade public transport company is making a significant contribution to the UITP climate adaptation ambitions, one of which is doubling the public transport market share between now and 2025.

The GSP Belgrade action plan presents the ambitions of the Serbian capital: increasing the public transport market share by 50 to 60% in the period up to 2025, linking environmentally friendly modes of transport, training bus drivers in fuel-efficient driving, launching pilot projects with electric buses, and replacing buses with vehicles equipped with cleaner Euro 6 diesel engines.

 

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Mobile TNT Express depot in Brussels

Mobile TNT Express depot in Brussels

Many urban supply services use small diesel-powered lorries and vans. These vehicles contribute to traffic congestion, climate emissions, and soot and particulate matter pollution. Together with the Vrije Universiteit van Brussel, TNT Express has tested a new concept that would be less susceptible to congestion and would be “emission-free”:  the mobile depot.

The mobile depot takes deliveries for the city centre to a centrally located car park. The trailer has a stockroom and a loading platform from which cycle-couriers equipped with electric “Cyclo Cargoes” collect and deliver orders.

The mobile depot was deployed for a period of three months to deliver and collect parcels in part of Brussels city centre, a densely populated and highly urbanised district with a surface area of twelve square kilometres.

Over a twelve-week period, 7000 parcels were collected and delivered, 4500 kilometres were “cycled”, and 2500 kilometres were driven by truck. The entire operational process was tested during the trial, including the transport to and from the TNT depot at Brussels Airport, Zaventem.

The trial resulted in a considerable reduction of greenhouse gas emissions (-23%), but also turned out to be substantially more expensive than regular forms of transport. This concept must be developed further before it can be upscaled. This will probably entail that electric cargo bicycles be replaced by electric delivery vans; in addition, high customer density of the area remains essential.

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Cycling all around the world

Cycling all around the world

In the Netherlands, cycling is dubbed as “normal”. We don’t worry about it. We don’t think about it. It is just as normal as breathing air. Supernormal.  In our cities, up to 60% of all journeys are made by bike. A cheap, efficient and climate-friendly way to move around. No air pollution, no noise pollution, and fit and healthy people. One of the most sustainable and green modes of transport available. Is this one of the reasons why Dutch cities are so liveable?

Our cycling boom started in the 1970s. Just as in the rest of Europe, cycling rates were declining. Fast. The traffic safety situation deteriorated. Cars ruled. But the mothers protested. They wanted to protect their children. Combined with the oil crisis - and the national government intervened: a network of separated cycling infrastructure was financed and planned.  “Supernormal Cycling” in the Netherlands is a result of planning and policy changes. Change is possible.

Fast forward 40 years: cycling has become ‘supernormal’ in Dutch cities. The Dutch ride relatively slowly, and short distances. Mostly in the core cities. Cycling is local: traffic lights, stops, turns and congestion: the Dutch cyclist zig-zags between all these challenges and stays upright on the trusty Dutch bike. But our environment has evolved in those 40 years: cities have turned into urban regions. People travel further, more often, and between urban regions. The road network, which was built in the 1970s, is strained: long, long lines of cars are waiting to enter the heart of our cities, emitting CO2 and decreasing air quality. The Netherlands isn’t different from any other country.

But there might be a new, silent, revolution going on. Regional and local authorities are, slowly, developing a network of fast cycling routes (or cycling highways). Dedicated routes designed for the cyclist: fast, attractive, convenient and safe to use. No longer stop and go, but worry-free cycling.  With these new routes, cycling follows the people: it goes regional. Connecting suburbs with the city centre, business parks with residential areas: the daily urban system. There are two main factors which contributed to this policy change:

  • The economic crisis: 1 km of fast cycling infrastructure costs only 2% of the cost of 1 km of highway;
  • The pedelec: the electric bike makes it a lot easier to ride a bike. For commuters, the elderly, or simply lazy people: an electric bike  
         increases convenience, speed and applicability for all users.

The region of Arnhem – Nijmegen is leading in the development of fast cycling routes. The first routes have been completed. These routes provide congestion-free corridors into the city. No traffic jams but reliable commuting. New parking garages are being built at train stations to accommodate travellers going between urban regions: bike+train as a green, fast and convenient mode of transport. In this region cycling rates are increasing. People are choosing the (E-)bike over the car or public transport. Not because of the environment. Or finances. No, the main reasons are health, convenience and speed. In the region of Arnhem-Nijmegen we are building a sustainable and green transport system. Based on convenience.

Velo-city 2017 -
Velo-city 2017 -

In 2017 the biggest cycling conference of the world will be held in Arnhem and Nijmegen. Over 1.500 delegates will visit the region and discuss the latest developments in cycling. The conference' theme is 'the freedom of cycling', highlighting the way cycling is experienced in The Netherlands. You are all invited to visit the number 1 cycling country in the world!

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intro

The contribution of railway transport

intro

The contribution of railway transport

The CO2 emissions of railway freight transport are some four times lower compared to transport by water, twelve times lower compared to road transport and forty times lower compared to freight transport by aeroplane. The exact numbers for each run, sailing and flight differ on account of numerous factors, but roughly speaking these are the ratios(1) .Taking the train to attend the climate summit in Paris means approximately 75% lower CO2 emissions compared to taking the car. And this is not even considering the lower emissions of other harmful substances(2).

This means that rail transport can contribute a great deal to achieving a liveable, accessible and climate-friendly world, provided that rail transport can increase its share and raise the sustainability of the sector: for example, by replacing outdated diesel stock. This is precisely what the International Union of Railways (UIC) had in mind with the ambitious yet feasible goals it formulated in 2014.

Two of the various significant agreements to which the members of the UIC – among whom the European countries, China, Russia, India and the United States of America – have committed themselves are: by 2030, CO2 emissions and the energy consumption of rail transport must be reduced by half compared to 1990, while the railway share in both passenger and goods transport must have doubled by 2030 vis-à-vis 2010.

 

1. Milieu Centraal, 7 September 2008

2. NS CO2 comparator, based on Milieu Centraal formula (verified by NRC Next, September 2015)

 

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Alstom’s climate adaptation and energy ambitions

Alstom’s climate adaptation and energy ambitions

Train manufacturer Alstom is aiming for a 20% reduction in the energy consumption of its transport solutions by 2020 compared with 2014. This gain should come from the trains themselves, but also from the infrastructure and the services provided to clients. Over that same period of time, the energy consumption of factories, buildings and plants must be reduced by 10%.

Alstom is currently developing new types of fuel cell powered trains. These zero-emission trains will produce considerably less noise. The company is also working on a new generation of high-speed trains. These trains will carry 750 passengers and consume 35% less energy than the previous generation.

Weight and air resistance will be reduced in all trains. Collaborating with suppliers and clients – e.g., in the Railsponsible programme – will yield climate change and energy gains throughout the entire chain.

The 10% energy savings in factories, plants and buildings is in addition to the 18% savings that have been attained since 2008. These savings involve the production processes, but also water consumption, waste and heating.

Alstom is the first train manufacturer to use a set of key performance indicators to monitor its progress with respect to energy savings. KPIs constitute a reliable impact assessment system. A standardised system will further improve consistent data collection and also enable the generation of energy simulations for new trains and systems.

Alstom has already achieved a 16% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. All the intended measures will achieve a further reduction of 10% by 2020.

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Green flower transport by rail

Green flower transport by rail

Fresh flowers are highly perishable. For that reason, they are mainly transported by road and sometimes even by air. In the context of the “Green Rail” initiative, Dutch floriculturists and flower exporters have been experimenting with multi-modal flower transport lines since 2008. Their goal is a competitive, reliable and climate-friendly alternative to flower transport by road.

Various projects have been set up to explore whether flower export in refrigerated containers by rail could replace a substantial proportion of the road transport. If this proves a reliable and relatively fast alternative, it would entail cost savings and climate gains on account of volume advantages and a reduction in CO2 emissions.

Containers that maintain a constant temperature for ten days have been driven to Italy, Hungary, Romania, Poland and Spain. These pilots – that utilised existing rail transport lines – have resulted in a regular connection with Italy. The transport company Jan de Rijk now operates this transport line five times a week, from Venlo in the Dutch province of Limburg to Milan.

The “Green Rail” project demonstrates that even high-quality and perishable goods can successfully be transported in a multi-modal manner. The introduction of a reliable Track & Trace system has enabled the chain coordinator to respond quickly in the event of (imminent) delays. In addition, it has won over potential “Green Rail” users.

Food stuffs account for approximately one-third of global transport. A substantial proportion comprises highly perishable goods. As best practices demonstrate that multi-modal transport is a cost-effective and climate-friendly option here, too, rail transport stands to gain a considerable market share.

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intro

Global Green Freight Action Plan

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Global Green Freight Action Plan

In the run-up to the Paris climate summit, countries, cities, businesses and civic society organisations have committed to the Global Green Freight Action Plan, a series of programmes aimed at more efficient and more sustainable goods transport. This action plan was urgently needed and can set a great deal in motion.

The transport sector accounts for nearly one-fourth of all CO2 emissions in the world. Passenger cars, buses, lorries, motorcycles and mopeds produce three-fourths of this share. The growth of the economy and transport – particularly in the developing world – is accompanied by a rapid growth in greenhouse gas emissions by the road transport sector. Meanwhile, a wide range of resources is being employed to reduce the emission rates, from cleaner engines and more sustainable fuels to encouraging more efficient loading and promoting transport by rail or ship.

One of the agreements set down in the Global Green Freight Action Plan involves the reduction of sooty particles (Black Carbon), Methane and tropospheric Ozone. Together, these particles are the main producers of greenhouse gas emissions, after CO2. In addition, they cause heart and lung conditions, pollute the environment, and jeopardise agricultural output.

The Global Green Freight Action Plan promotes concrete innovation of the sector with a view to sustainability and the climate. In addition, the Action Plan works on raising awareness within the sector and formulating recommendations to government authorities, for example relating to the relatively unknown group of polluting particulate matter and greenhouse gas emitters.

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Platooning reduces fuel consumption

Platooning reduces fuel consumption

Platooning involves trucks driving in closed formation: an important step towards self-driving truck traffic. DAF truck manufacturer and TNO research institute provide a demonstration. Two trucks drive at an extremely close distance to one another on a public road in the Netherlands. The second truck does have a driver, but he has no driving tasks. A sophisticated cruise control and communication system ensures that the trucks maintain a minimum yet safe distance. The system also operates the brakes, accelerator, gearbox and steering wheel in the second truck.

DAF and TNO in the Netherlands are not the only organisations experimenting with platooning. Scania and Volvo in Sweden, and Freightliner in the United States are working on the development of similar systems: reducing fuel consumption, optimising utilisation of the road capacity, improving safety and expanding productivity. As long as a second driver is still mandatory, he may rest or take care of paper work during the drive.

Driving at a distance of less than a second from the truck ahead makes optimum use of its “slipstream”.  The result: a 10% reduction in fuel consumption and considerably lower CO2 emissions.

Before we can introduce platooning on a wide scale we need to remove a few obstacles. First of all, the platoon must be safe under all circumstances. This requires thorough testing of systems and extensive test runs. In addition, the laws must be amended in order to accommodate this new form of road transport. Yet the potential gains of platooning, in terms of safety, the economy and the climate, are so large that stakeholders are prepared to invest considerable sums.

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Guangdong Green Transport Project

Guangdong Green Transport Project

In 2009, the Chinese province of Guangdong, with assistance from the World Bank, initiated a project aimed at making road transport in China more energy-efficient, climate-friendly and environmentally friendly. The transport sector is one of the main sources of greenhouse gas emissions in China. Road transport accounts for 70% of total emissions, i.e., a substantial share. The prosperous province of Guangdong has seen the total cargo by road transport increase by 125% since the year 2000.

Although more energy-efficient and cleaner transport could be attractive for economic reasons as well, few efforts have been made in this regard. This is related to the lack of (knowledge of) available green technology and cutthroat competition that hampers experiments with new methods and technologies.

The project currently underway in Guangdong comprises three components: energy efficient technology, organisation of logistics, and training and education about green transport concepts. The first primarily involves quick wins, such as regularly checking tyre pressure, streamlining by fitting spoilers on the truck or the trailer, and fitting side skirts to reduce turbulence underneath the trailer. Organisation of logistics involves, for example, improving efficiency by “drop and hook”. Rather than waiting for the cargo to be unloaded, the driver unhooks the loaded trailer and hitches on an empty one. Training and education is provided through a “Green Transport Platform”, websites, demonstrations, posters and publications.

The results from the pilot project that was carried out last year with a number of trucks show a substantial reduction in fuel consumption as a result of, among other things, reduced air resistance. The “drop and hook” approach boosted productivity, and increased transport efficiency resulted in a 4.15% reduction in average fuel consumption.

Upscaling of the project is safeguarded by its incorporation into the 13th Five-Year Plan for the logistics and freight sectors.

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intro

Climate action in aviation

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Climate action in aviation

Aviation is the least climate-friendly of all modes of transport. At the same time, it is hardly possible to imagine our world without global aviation connections for passenger and freight transport. For example, in terms of the economy, a small country such as the Netherlands owes a great deal to Schiphol Airport, an airport occupying an important international position. Therefore it is essential that we rapidly develop more climate-friendly approaches to flying.

Climate actions in aviation focus on three issues: compensation of CO2 emissions by aviation companies, airports, and passengers; improving aeroplanes by developing new designs, cleaner engines, or something as simple as fitting wing tips; and thirdly, reducing airport emissions. ICAO/ATAG have initiated two projects in the context of the Action Agenda on Transport and Climate Change: the “Airport Carbon Accreditation” and “Climate Action in Aviation”.

The Airport Carbon Accreditation initiative involves reducing CO2 emissions by airport activities over which the airports have actual authority. The initiative spans 129 airports and each airport is assessed individually. Certification takes place at four levels: agendising, reducing, optimising, and the highest status: “climate-neutral”. This verifiable certification contributes to the credibility vis-à-vis government authorities and the public when it comes to the climate ambitions pursued by airports.

The “Climate Action in Aviation” initiative aims for a climate-neutral growth in aviation by improving the existing fleet, less taxiing, new aeroplanes, and especially market-based regulations on a level playing field. The latter calls upon the governments. On the other hand, the ICAO is taking the responsibility, of its own accord, for building capacity in order to include all the associated countries in the CO2 reduction action plans.

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United Eco-skies

United Eco-skies

United Airlines has been testing various types of bio fuels for use in its air fleet since 2009. In 2015, the company won the WBM Bio Business Award for its Eco-skies project, in collaboration with Los Angeles International Airport (LAX).

In 2011 United Airlines first used bio fuel for one of its commercial flights. In 2013 they were the first aviation company to start procuring bio fuel on a commercial scale, at a price that can compete with traditional fuel. Last year, the company started using bio fuel on flights departing from Los Angeles Airport.

The fuel that the aeroplanes use is a mix of 70% traditional kerosene and 30% bio fuel. The bio fuel is supplied by UOP, a Honeywell subsidiary. It is derived exclusively from non-food feedstocks, which means it does not compete with the production of food crops.

This fuel accounts for a 50% reduction in CO2 emissions and its advantage is that it does not require any conversion of regular aeroplane engines. In addition to United Airlines, UOP’s bio fuel is being used by Air New Zealand, Japan Airlines and various national air forces.

The use of this fuel has a high upscaling potential: at United Airlines, in aviation across the globe, and elsewhere in the transport sector. Along with similar bio fuels, it can be used in passenger cars, trucks, ships, generators, and an array of machines and equipment.

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Airport Carbon Accreditation

Airport Carbon Accreditation

Athens international airport has replaced air-cooled air conditioning systems with more energy-efficient water-cooled equipment. This will result in an annual CO2 reduction of some 4500 tonnes. The solar collector that was put into operation at Delhi airport, generating 2 mW, saves close to three kilograms of CO2 per passenger per year. A so-called tri-generation plant – cooling, heating, and energy generation combined – more than halved CO2 emissions by the airport facilities at Enfidah in Tunisia.

These are some interesting examples from the Airport Carbon Accreditation programme. This involves reducing CO2 emissions by airport activities over which the airports have actual authority. The initiative spans 129 airports and each airport is assessed individually. Certification takes place at four levels: agendising, reducing, optimising, and the highest status: “climate-neutral”. This verifiable certification contributes to the credibility vis-à-vis government authorities and the public when it comes to the climate ambitions pursued by airports.

This approach carries substantial growth potential, due to the growing importance attached to climate adaptation actions, and because of the effectiveness and reproducibility of the programme. With its online applications, excellent manuals, a helpdesk, and face to face contact with airport personnel, the programme holds a range of trump cards.

It is important, however, for financiers to assist financially constrained airports in facilitating the implementation of the programme. This is where the World Bank, civil aviation organisation ICAO, and other stakeholders come in. National governments can provide support through their climate adaptation policies.

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intro

Navigating a Changing Climate

intro

Navigating a Changing Climate

After the train, transport by water is the most climate-friendly mode of transport. This can mainly be attributed to the emission rate per tonne of transported goods per nautical mile. Substantial gains can still be made with respect to marine engine emissions, viz. by replacing old engines, more effective propulsion, and reducing the use of heavy fuel oil. Trial runs with marine engines supported by giant kites show a considerable reduction in fuel consumption!

Particularly in the inland shipping sector, much can be gained with a so-called modal shift from road to water. Not just from a climate perspective, but also in terms of accessibility. Whereas traditional inland shipping lost considerable ground to road transport, studies are currently underway – mainly on account of traffic congestion – to explore the options for new inland shipping terminals and urban distribution by water.

In recent years, the International Maritime Organisation IMO has expended considerable effort, together with the United Nations (UNFCCC) for international agreements on reducing emissions by the international shipping industry. The “Navigating a Changing Climate” initiative focuses on raising awareness of the impact that higher storm frequency, rising sea levels, and a more cumbersome discharge of river water will have on canals, ports, quays, and plants.

The elaboration of solutions is focused on infrastructure that is more resilient under extreme conditions. The point of departure in this respect is the “working with nature” concept, and the combination of mitigation and adaptation, for example, in the design of approach routes, ports, and basins.

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The ferry across the Sogne Fjord

The ferry across the Sogne Fjord

The ferry crosses the Norwegian Sogne Fjord thirty-four times a day. The crossing is six kilometres long and takes twenty minutes. The ferry accommodates 360 passengers and 120 cars. At each quay, the ferry’s Li-ion battery system is charged for ten minutes. The fast-charge system is equipped with a battery buffer in order to prevent overloading of the relatively weak power grid.

The ferry is the result of a competition to come up with the most environmentally friendly solution for a ferry service across the Sogne Fjord, organised by the Norwegian Ministry of Transport in 2012. This transport solution is clean, quiet, and climate-friendly. Not just because it does not emit any substances, but also because 90% of the electricity in Norway is generated by hydro-electric power stations.

The ferry is owned and operated by a private company, Norled. The ship has been built by the Norwegian Fjellstrand shipyard. Minimising power consumption is vitally important for an electric ship. This allows for relatively small batteries with an optimum fast-charging capability. With its slender, light-weight aluminium catamaran hull and a speed that is limited to 18 km/h, the ferry uses 30% less energy

The reduction in CO2 emissions compared to a conventional diesel ferry is estimated at 95%. The upscaling potential is high. In Norway alone, eighty other ferries on sixty different routes qualify for this approach. Beyond Norwegian borders, the system can also prove its worth in competition with other electric ferry services, such as Le Ferry Boat in Marseille and Movitz in Stockholm. With a recovery time of a mere five years, the Norwegian electric propulsion system is definitely competitive.

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green CHAINge flowers by ship

green CHAINge flowers by ship

The aeroplane has lost its monopoly when it comes to long-distance transport of flowers and plants. In addition to refrigerated rail transport within Europe, these perishable products can now also be transported by sea from Africa and even Latin America to Europe. This means climate gains, cost savings and proof that it can be done!

In the Green CHAINge project, nurseries and merchants, transporters, the Dutch government and Wageningen University are collaborating on the importation of flowers from Kenya. A grant from the Dutch government is being used to conduct research into refrigeration and other aspects of quality maintenance in flower shipments. The export by ship of South-African Protea and Colombian roses has already demonstrated its feasibility.

In collaboration with the Kenyan “flower council” and local governments several shipments of roses have been shipped from Mombassa to Europe. Pilot shipments of other flowers and plants will establish which products are suitable for this mode of export.

The challenges involved are optimising the export with the widest possible range of products, monitoring and checking throughout the entire chain, from harvest to transport, and risk management based on reliable data on delays and deterioration of the cargo.

Green CHAINge and other flower transports by ship have resulted in a 90% reduction in CO2 emissions and yield considerable cost savings compared to air freight. The upscaling potential of these projects thus not only extends to other flower and plant producing countries in Africa, Latin America and even Asia, but also to producers and exporters of other perishable products in these parts of the world.

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intro

A setting for green transport

intro

A setting for green transport

A great deal has already been accomplished in the field of cleaner and more climate-friendly fuels. Lead has been banned from petrol, and a combination of cleaner fuels, cleaner engines and catalytic converters has substantially reduced emissions. International agreements and national legislation have contributed considerably in this respect.

Yet in terms of the climate, the environment and public health, great gains are still to be made with energy carriers for transport. We must break free from our dependence on non-renewable fossil fuels, also with a view to making our economy sustainable and less vulnerable. This calls for preparing alternatives to be marketed and systematically utilising “transition fuels” on our way to a transport sector that is clean and, in the long run, will stop producing CO2  emissions altogether.

To this end, the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment prepared the Fuel Vision last year, together with a broad-based group of stakeholders. It constitutes an important guideline for the pioneering role the Netherlands intends to assume during the COP 21 in Paris.

Within the framework of the Action Agenda on Transport and Climate Change, the Global Fuel Economy Initiative (GFEI) aims to halve the use of fossil fuels by 2030 and reduce the dissipation of fuel. The “Fuel Efficiency Accelerator” developed by the GFEI is ready to go. All that we need now is the active support from global institutions, national governments, the business community and civic society organisations to realise these ambitions.

If we widen our definition of green energy for transport, we could also mention the International Zero-Emission Vehicle Alliance (ZEV) and the Urban Electric Mobility Initiative here. The first is an alliance seeking to help achieve national climate goals by promoting electric transport. The second initiative is aiming for a market share of at least 30% for electric urban transport, including two-wheelers, by 2030.

The list of concrete actions features a wide range of options for green energy for transport, from optimising existing fuels, bio fuels, and LNG to electric vehicles and the use of hydrogen in transport.

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Banana pallets

Banana pallets

Of the one billion pallets used annually to transport goods, 95% are made of wood. Pallet wood is often imported at a great distance: for example, in Latin America from high up in the Andes to the fruit culture along the coast, or by sea from Chile to plantation areas elsewhere. The situation is the same in the Philippines and other tropical regions. The use of other fibrous plants – preferably from the plantations themselves – for the production of pallets or the components of pallets would save a great deal of transport kilometres and consequently CO2 emissions.

The Dutch Yellow Pallet B.V. company has developed the technology to supply companies with the required raw materials and know-how for producing pallets from, for example, the stalks of banana plants. The use of this residual product saves wood and transport. Furthermore, it is sustainable and efficient, because the stalks provide four times more dry fibres than wood. Production costs are some 30% lower and CO2 emissions can be reduced by more than 20%.

Yellow Pallet focuses initially on the pallet market for the export of bananas, melons and pineapples from the five main exporting countries: Costa Rica, Ecuador, Colombia, the Philippines and Guatemala. The first pallets will still be made from blocks of pressed banana stalks and wooden boards, but expectations are that the production of 100% banana pallets will commence in 2017.

 

 

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Engineering with Nature

Engineering with Nature

Towards the end of the 1990s, the dredging depots along the banks of the Atchafalaya river in Louisiana, USA, filled up. Yet dredging was essential in order to keep the key navigation channel at the required depth.

In consultation with regional and federal authorities, the Engineering with Nature project group started to explore unorthodox solutions. In 2012, following extensive studies into the possible impact on the environment, fish stock, soil, flows, and sediment movements, they commenced using dredge sediment for “flow directing” sediment deposits and the construction of an artificial island.

The island currently measures 35 hectares. It features more than eighty unusual plant species and twenty different wildlife species. The island shores are frequented by water birds, and fishermen and hunters have also discovered the new land.

This Engineering with Nature project has major advantages. It has created room for depositing dredge sediment, flora and fauna are developing, more CO2 is sequestered and less CO2 is emitted. The currents along the new island counteract silting up, which means that the channel requires less dredging. The know-how and experience gained in this project can be put to good use in similar river and delta taskings across the globe.

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ECOPMS platform for efficient and sustainable transport

ECOPMS platform for efficient and sustainable transport

ECOPMS is a French initiative aimed at greening the transport sector by expanding multi-modal transport and increasing eco-efficiency. The initiative was launched by the road and rail transport sectors, but has expanded to other modes. It is a collaborative effort by various parties, among whom are several railway companies, multi-modal transporters, the Le Havre port authority, and logistics consultants.

The initiative revolves around a shared service platform in which both the physical flow of goods and the information flows regarding transport and logistics are managed. ECOPMS provides multi-modal alternatives to existing transport solutions, ensures efficient loading by linking short-haul freight supply, and explores green transport alternatives wherever possible.

This virtual platform brings together logistics supply and demand in the most eco-efficient manner possible. ECOPMS uses a cloud computing system developed by Orange Business Services. The cloud makes various services available online, to be accessed by smartphones and tablets.

In concrete terms, ECOPMS focuses on three things: analysing the demand for transport solutions, organising transport supply through the ECOPMS cloud, and physical implementation at two locations, the Paris – Le Havre route, mainly involving tracking and tracing, and transport to the Marseille-Vos port hinterland, where the practicability of the virtual platform is field-tested.

The opportunities for ECOPMS are to be found e.g. in the digitisation of transport documents, tracking and tracing of cargoes throughout the multi-modal transport chain in Europe, and the seamless data exchange between all logistics partners. The upscaling of ECOPMS outside France is being explored by the Smart Rail project, within the framework of the European Horizon 2020 programme.

 

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City Strength Diagnostic

City Strength Diagnostic

Cities accommodate an ever increasing proportion of the world population. In the decades ahead, this is where the expected growth will be manifested most. In addition to working on disaster management and climate adaptation for the benefit of their citizens and companies, rapidly growing conurbations also seek to gain a proper picture of the threats they are facing in terms of (flood) protection, housing, employment, food supply, public health, and accessibility.

To this end, the World Bank initiated the “Resilient Cities” programme in December 2013. A component of this programme is the “CityStrength Diagnostic”, a method aimed at rapidly analysing a city’s defence mechanisms and resilience in a number of key areas, including Transport.

Within a timeframe of two to six months, a multi-disciplinary team conducts a full analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of a city by means of workshops, interviews, and field trips. The team identifies gaps in intra-sectoral collaboration, and comes up with proposals to remove obstacles. The method has already been put into practice in Can Tho in Vietnam, and in Adis Ababa in Ethiopia.

Both cities largely depend on road transport for their provisioning, which means they are vulnerable when it comes to flood risks, traffic congestion, and health risks due to air pollution.

In the opinion of Le Hung Dung, Chairman of the people’s committee of Can Tho City, expanding his city’s defence mechanisms and resilience mainly call for structural investments in flood protection, improving public sanitation, and enhancing the transport infrastructure. The CityStrength Diagnostic helps prioritise the required investments.

Application of the method elsewhere depends on the extent to which the authorities are able and prepared to rise above the concrete project level, and conduct a broad-based analysis of a city’s strengths and weaknesses in terms of resilience.

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intro

Transition in fuels

intro

Transition in fuels

A great deal has already been accomplished in the field of cleaner and more climate-friendly fuels. Lead has been banned from petrol, and a combination of cleaner fuels, cleaner engines and catalytic converters has substantially reduced emissions. International agreements and national legislation have contributed considerably in this respect.

Yet in terms of the climate, the environment and public health, great gains are still to be made with energy carriers for transport. We must break free from our dependence on non-renewable fossil fuels, also with a view to making our economy sustainable and less vulnerable. This calls for preparing alternatives to be marketed and systematically utilising “transition fuels” on our way to a transport sector that is clean and, in the long run, will stop producing CO2  emissions altogether.

To this end, the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment prepared the Fuel Vision last year, together with a broad-based group of stakeholders. It constitutes an important guideline for the pioneering role the Netherlands intends to assume during the COP 21 in Paris.

Within the framework of the Action Agenda on Transport and Climate Change, the Global Fuel Economy Initiative (GFEI) aims to halve the use of fossil fuels by 2030 and reduce the dissipation of fuel. The “Fuel Efficiency Accelerator” developed by the GFEI is ready to go. All that we need now is the active support from global institutions, national governments, the business community and civic society organisations to realise these ambitions.

If we widen our definition of green energy for transport, we could also mention the International Zero-Emission Vehicle Alliance (ZEV) and the Urban Electric Mobility Initiative here. The first is an alliance seeking to help achieve national climate goals by promoting electric transport. The second initiative is aiming for a market share of at least 30% for electric urban transport, including two-wheelers, by 2030.

The list of concrete actions features a wide range of options for green energy for transport, from optimising existing fuels, bio fuels, and LNG to electric vehicles and the use of hydrogen in transport.

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From waste gas to bio fuel

From waste gas to bio fuel

Lanza Tech has developed a new and unique method of converting carbonaceous waste gases from the steel industry to ethanol for bio fuels and twenty other valuable chemical products.

Before Lanza Tech’s microbiological method, recovering valuable elements from waste gases used to be too costly. The development of robust microbes and a new type of bio reactor has created a cost-efficient way to upscale the gas fermentation process to the production of ethanol for bio fuels.

As is the case with the other initiatives, a new “challenger” to the status quo requires both public and private support: from government authorities, e.g. by designing regulations that accommodate innovative technologies, and from private investors, by showing the nerve to take their chances with a new concept.

In the Belgian city of Ghent, the consortium of steel mogul ArcelorMittal, Lanza Tech, Primetals Technologies and E4tech is building the first commercially scaled bio ethanol plant based on this principle. Its base material is the waste gas from the adjacent ArcelorMittal steel plant. With this plant, the consortium is tentatively aiming for an annual production of 47,000 tonnes of fuel ethanol - a quantity that may grow to 300,000 tonnes, the equivalent of 380 million litres.

The production of this bio fuel is not affected by debates on competing with food production or the environmentally harmful use of land. The construction of the plant is scheduled for 2016. The first bio ethanol is expected to be produced by mid-2017. Subsequently, the process is intended to be rolled out to several production facilities across Europe.

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From household waste to bio fuel

From household waste to bio fuel

Enerkem converts non-recyclable household garbage into ethanol, with the lowest production cost compared to other ethanol production methods. This ethanol is a renewable, non-toxic, water-soluble, highly bio-degradable and clean burning fuel, used as a high octane oxygenate in gasoline.

Headquartered in Canada, Enerkem owns a full-scale commercial waste-to-bio fuels facility in Alberta as well as a demonstration plant and a pilot facility in Quebec. The company is developing additional bio refineries in North America and globally, based on its modular manufacturing approach.

Bio fuels from waste and residual biomass, such as Enerkem’s ethanol, provide alternative fuel sources that can gradually replace petroleum in the global fuel pool, and positively impact today’s most pressing energy, climate-related and environmental issues.

This full-scale facility is the first collaboration between a waste-to-bio fuels producer and a metropolitan centre to address waste disposal challenges. It is also leading the first wave of commercial advanced bio fuels facilities in the world while serving as a model for other municipalities on how to manage their waste sustainably.

The Enerkem Alberta Biofuels facility is part of a comprehensive municipal waste-to-bio fuels initiative in partnership with the City of Edmonton and Alberta Innovates – Energy and Environment Solutions. It is by far one of the most significant developments the waste and bio refinery sectors have yet seen, and one of the first commercial advanced bio refineries in the world.

As for upscaling opportunities: to date, more than 60 countries have established blending mandates or targets to increase renewable fuel content, a number that keeps growing every year along with the demand for bio fuels in these new markets.

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ChargePoint Partnering to Scale EV

ChargePoint Partnering to Scale EV

By expanding the number of charging stations, ChargePoint seeks to promote the wider uptake of electric vehicles in the United States. The company is focusing on Express DC Fast Chargers to combat the “range anxiety” that still constitutes a major barrier to a real break-through of electrically powered vehicles in the US. With Express DC Fast, drivers can charge their all-electric cars from zero to eighty percent in twenty to forty minutes.

Chargepoint has the largest network of electric charging stations in the US. The company boasts 24,000 charging stations, and has joined forces with BMW and Volkswagen to expand the number of Express DC Fast Chargers on long-distance routes along both the East coast and the West coast of the US.

The strategy is aimed at connecting metropolitan areas by charging stations at maximum intervals of 50 km. Along the East coast, the focus is on the Interstate 95 between Boston and Washington D.C., along the West coast on the connection between Portland, San Francisco, Los Angeles, and San Diego.

The comparatively short distance between the stations enables drivers to make regular fast “refuelling” stops, without really exhausting their batteries. The goal is to popularise electric driving, not just in the cities, but also for long distances.

With the support of the government, BMW, and Volkswagen, ChargePoint intends to commence by constructing one hundred charging stations along both coasts. In a subsequent phase, more stations will be opened across the country.

Meanwhile, ChargePoint has already delivered 11 million “fill-ups”. The ChargePoint network has prevented 35,000 tonnes of CO2 emission. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory expects that California alone will require an additional 775 Fast Chargers to be able to keep pace with the growing number of electric cars up to 2020.

 

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Smart Solar Charging

Smart Solar Charging

Locally generated solar energy and electric car batteries are perfectly complementary. A battery charger that does not just store but can also release the energy produced by its own solar panels provides ideal energy storage for both the car and household power consumption. The first field test involving Smart Solar Charging commenced in June 2015 in the Dutch city of Utrecht.

Smart Solar Charging is an initiative of a consortium comprising General Electric, Vidyn, LomboXnet, LastMile Solutions, and grid manager Stedin. The system is compact and cheap, suitable for placement in public spaces or private garages, and in principle compatible with all electric vehicles.

The system has substantial potential, especially now that the capacity of EV batteries is expanding rapidly. Smart Solar Charging opens the door to a smart and efficient, decentralised power supply.

A prerequisite, however, is that grid managers are prepared to participate in the thought process, to think outside the frameworks of their traditional grid facilities, and see opportunities in providing services involving so-called decentralised “Smart Grids”.

The car industry will also have to acknowledge additional applications of electric car batteries. Car manufacturers need to adapt their systems not just to charging car batteries but also to enabling the power stored to be used for other purposes than powering the car.

Governments will have to adapt their energy legislation, which currently still raises many obstacles to decentralised generation, storage, and supply to the power grid. Offering room for experiments involving new decentralised power supply systems is an important first step. The potential gain in terms of a sustainable energy transition is worth it.

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More inspiration

More inspiration

More than 100 climate actions in transport can be found on the website: ppmc-org/80days
 

More information on green transport:
 

International Transport Forum (ITF):  www.internationaltransportforum.org
Partnership on Sustainable Low Carbon Transport (SLoCaT):  www.slocat.net
Paris Process on Mobility and Climate (PPMC):  www.ppmc-cop21.org
Non-State Actor Zone for Climate Action (NAZCA):  www.climateaction.unfccc.int
Lima to Paris Action Agenda (LPAA):  www.climateaction.unfccc.int
 

Special thanks to:
 

Heather Allen, Maaike de Beer, Sander de Bruin, Emrys Dijkhuis, Hans Eeuwes, Mario Fruianu, Geert van Grootveld, Jorrit Harmsen, Bas van Horn, Cornie Huizenga, Gavin Kaar, Liselot Meijer, Ruud van Wordragen and all the businesses, associations, initiatives and NGO’s in green transport that shared their information with us.